Henry of Winchester was the eighth monarch to rule England since the Norman invasion of 1066. Crowned at the age of nine, he was the first child king since Elthered the Unready. Henry was the eldest son of King John of England, grandson of Henry II, nephew of Richard the Lionheart, and later father of Edward I. Due to his young age, sound physical state and an ability to keep the peace Henry ruled for 56 years, one of only 5 monarchs of Great Britain to rule for over half a century. During his reign, England developed greatly, particularly its buildings and way of life. Thanks to the actions of Henry’s regents, the terms of Magna Carta became established and, by 1266, these had evolved further with the permanent implementation of the Provisions of Oxford, leading to the origins of the modern day parliament. Away from England, his reign was dogged by war with Wales, feud with France, and his forced acceptance to abide by the laws of the Papacy, following the surrender of England to Rome by John in 1213. Other than war with Simon de Montfort, Henry III is perhaps best remembered for the flourishing of the famous gothic cathedrals that still mark the landscape of England. The most remarkable is perhaps Westminster Abbey which he had rebuilt at his own expense.